BTN-Hawaii Volcano

Facts- People of Hawaii been running away as the Kilauea volcano spilt lava and land fountains of toxic gases into the streets. It already destroyed 26 homes. Few people were allowed to go back and collect valuable items such as pets and medicine during hours where the volcano was not very active. But others were not allowed to travel back to their areas because it’s consumed with poisonous sulphur dioxide gases coming out of the earth. Those visits back were well timed as the night after more lava came out from fissures which are slits and holes in the earth. So far no one has died or been injured by this volcano but it had a strong magnitude of 6.9 it was the strongest earthquake since 1975.  This caused rock slide and a coastal cliff to come down collapsing. Scientists predict more earthquakes and eruptions to happen in the next few months. Most of the activity is happening in Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens areas. Kilauea has one of the most active volcanoes in the world. It has been erupting constantly for 35 years. Most of their eruptions are effusive eruptions they flow continuously but don’t explode.

Understandings- I understand the effect it has on areas, things that some volcanoes can produce and types of eruptions.

Question- How many eruptions have there been?

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BTN-Queensland Drought

Facts- A drought is where there little or no rain and it’s hard for farmers to feed animals and grow crops. It’s not called the sunshine state for nothing it’s always hot, dry and sticky out there. Angus and Lochy are 2 of many kids living in the Sunshine State. They have cattle, horses, and chooks but it’s a little harder to get to things out there like school and swimming lessons. Just imagine for us it probably only takes us 5-25 minutes to get to school and for some kids, it take’s 2 hours. Now 90% of Queensland is declared in drought, that’s the most widespread drought in the state they’ve ever recorded. Which makes things a little more complex so  Queensland state government will soon be giving farmers help until the rain comes back again.

Understandings- I know understand that it’s hard for people who live in hot weathers and their struggles. I also understand that it effects there animals and pay.

Questions- How come not much rain comes to Queensland?

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BTN-The Ring of Fire

Facts- On September 29th, 2009 at 7 am a huge group of massive ways tore through coastal villages in Samoa. Turning so many homes into rubble. Its cause was a massive earthquake on the sea floor near the coast of Samoa. The very next day another huge earthquake hit the Island of Sumatra. There about 10 000 kilometres away from each other, scientists say it’s unlikely they caused each other. There have been smaller earthquakes and disasters there in the last year. And almost 90% of earthquakes happened in that broad area, it’s called the Ring of Fire. Some of the largest earthquakes happen there like the tsunami in 2004 happened in the Ring of fire. It’s home to 3 quarters of the world’s volcanoes and some of the biggest eruptions. We live on the thin cool layer the crust but it’s not just one solid piece. It’s made of huge pieces called tectonic plates and quite a few go along the Ring of fire. Tectonic plates drift over the liquid rock and slowly over time change shape. Scientists think that millions of years ago they caused the change of the continents. But you can’t see it move because it grows and the pace of your fingernail. Volcanoes can happen this way too.  

Understandings- I know understand about tectonic plates, what they do and their effects. I also understand that so many people live there that we need to find out more about what’s happening below.

Question- How many plates are there?

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BTN-Indigenous Anzacs

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Facts- In almost every little or big town in Australia, there’s little reminders here and there of what the First world war cost our country. More than 60 thousand people died during the war and almost no community wasn’t affected by the war. 

Jack Shaw thinks it would’ve been hard for everyone including the people, knowing that everyone would return. But they still know that their fighting for everyone in our country.

Jack Shaw’s great, great uncles Rufus and Cyril Rigney were with 21 other Ngarrindjeri men who went off to war. Rufus was the youngest at 16 years and he lied about his age to enroll. Aboriginal, Australians weren’t considered a citizen of their own home back then. Even though they’ve fought against all our Aussies in every war we’ve ever been in. About 800 Aboriginal men enrolled for the 1 world war and thousands in the second. Many wanted to see the outside world and get a higher pay. In Australia they didn’t have basic right, but then as soldiers got treated the same as any other of their fellow soldiers and some went up to high military positions. Neither made it home, as they both died in Europe. In 2004 a student Donna saw the memorial and decided to do a project on it. She found that Rufus had a grave in Belgium and and saved up to visit. She brought back some dirt from his grave so his relatives could say goodbye. 2 year after that a cousin went and performed a traditional fire dance. The trip became regular a pilgrimage called connecting spirits. Every two year students go and visit the grave of Aussie soldiers who they researched. 

Jake Shaw- Said, it was a big thing for all the families that had people leaving. It doesn’t matter what they look like and their skin colour doesn’t change the sacrifice they made for our country.

Understandings- I know understand the importance of aboriginal rights on Anzac day and how important it is to families who had people not come back.

Questions- How come all the soldiers treated aboriginals the same and at home they didn’t get rights? 

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BTN-Facebook Data

Facts- Some people are addicted to social media and can’t stop but while their busy getting likes and comments on their posts, there are people working behind the scenes. These people collect information off you, and if you’ve got social media it’s likely they’ve got stuff about you too. They can work out things like where you live, your education and your friends and start to create a map, of what your likely to be like. And a lot of sites like facebook target specific ads at you. But now Christopher Wylie claims that a big US research company he used to work for called cambridge analytica collected some data inappropriately and used that data to influence the outcome of the 2016 US presidential election. Here’s how it happened. You know those quizzes you can do online? Like, what personality type do you have? They’re usually fun, but often, before you do them, you have to agree to share some of your personal information. And that’s where the trouble started Christopher says in 2014, Cambridge Analytica took information from people who did one of those quizzes and all their friends and used it to targets ads that were advertising Donald Trump and they might have helped him win the 2016 US election, and become president.  There are even more accusations now that data from Facebook might also have been used to tamper the result of the Brexit vote, when the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union. When this news came out people weren’t happy. In fact, for many, it was a scandal big enough to make them log off for good. The hashtag Delete Facebook started trending and on the stock market the value of the company took a tumble.

Understandings- I know understand that a lot of stuff online and pop ups are to sway you into things and get the most information possible out of you.

Questions- How come it was only discovered now that Cambridge Analytica was doing this?

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BTN- History of Voting


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Blue- Questions

Red- Understanding


Facts- Voting hasn’t always been the same through Australian history. In the early 1800’s women couldn’t vote because people thought they were too emotional and not educated enough about politics to get a say. That’s why in the late 1800’s women started demanding change and respect. These people were known as the suffragettes, and suffrage means to be able to vote about politics that represent you. Suffragettes debated, wrote articles and petitions, protested and even went to jail for wanting rights. Crazy isn’t it. But in the end the women got what they wanted in 1902. Australia was the first official country to let women vote in federal elections and get to be voted into  Federal Parliament. But it still took another 2 decades for all the other states to follow on. Even if women were aloud to vote Indigenous Australians still weren’t permitted to vote. And finally in 1949 Indigenous Australians were aloud to vote in the federal elections.But then again only to the citizens who were in the army. It took another 13 years until all Indigenous Australians were aloud to vote in federal elections. Now days your aloud to vote when your 18, and not until 1973 were you aloud to vote unless you were 21 years or older. And Australia is one of heep of countries were you actually have to vote if you don’t it’s illegal and you get fined a small amount and it’s been that way since 1924.

Understanding- I know understand more about how things have changed in the time and how it’s affected different people.

Question- Are aboriginals aloud to be in Parliament and are there any aboriginals in any Parties?


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BTN-High Court

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Blue questions

So imagine playing a game of cards and if you lose there’s embarrassment from your friends. You put down your cards that you know can’t fail, absolutely nothing can stop those cards and you get defeated. And in a flash your out of the game and your friends are laughing. Now it’s not that bad if you lose in this but the government are playing a game of cards with high stakes. In Australia asylum seekers has been a big issue for many years. Politics have been playing their own game of card hoping to come with the best winning solution. Early in 2011 the government laid a hand of cards on the table. Australia’s Government offered to take 4000 refugees from Malaysia if Malaysia promised to take 800 asylum seekers in return. Australia thought they had the winning hand this time until the dealer had stepped in. The dealer in real life in politics is a place called High Court. The High Court is the most powerful court in Australia its power is above all the state and territory courts, even the high federal courts. In High Court 7 judges play a part of the dealer, they decide on important issues to our country. They’ve ruled cases involving the stolen generations, workplace law and Indigenous native land title. They do this by evaluating on the Australian law, and making judgements on what it says. Once their rule is made it’s final. In the Malaysia case 6-1 judges thought that this was illegal, which means that the government was actually trying to do something illegal. In the end the deal had to be called off, so the government lost this game. Julia’s still not quite out, because there’s still one play if she returns. The dealer threw her out if the game because the hand she threw broke the rules. If the rules changed her cards would be legal.                                

I know understand how governments kind of like a game, you put down your cards but then the High courts need and evaluate the law and make judgements. And their rule is final, and to succeed it needs to be legal.


What other positions are there in High court?

How long did it take for the court do find this trade was illegal?


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BTN-Levels of Government

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Green- facts

Red- understandings

Blue- question


There are 3 different types of government. Federal, state/ territory and local, each of these groups take care of different things and have different powers and control. The highest is federal government which takes care of all of Australia, and it has the most control. Federal takes care of money/ taxes, communications, environment, trade, and defence against Australia. State/ Territory is in control of the states and territories. It looks after between states health, education, mining and agriculture. They also take care of defence forces like police and hospitals.They also help out with roads, trains and public transport. Then there’s local which doesn’t have much power, but is within council districts. In Australia there’s more than 500 hundred local governments. Local takes care of local roads, garbage, pet control and building permits. Before 3 levels of government, each state was separated and had their own control. But in 1901 the states federated and united the colonies to the Commonwealth of Australia and with that the states passed many of their powers to the new federal government. But as the population grew, state governments found it hard to manage all of the responsibilities they still had. So in the 1970s local governments became popular, they were given money and their own powers. That’s why they have rules about who runs what, and if they disagree then federal overrules state and state overrules local.

I know understand the different responsibilities that each level has.

I understand how we federated and how it changed the way we run.


If there were any more levels of government what would they be?

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BTN- Moving Australia Day


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Blue- question



This BTN was about people have mixed emotions about Australia Day. For us it’s a celebration of our founding of Australia in the 1700’s, but for the Aboriginals it’s a time to remember an invasion when British empire took this land to themselves. On the 200th year of founding New south wales on January 26th 1988 you could see many aboriginals fighting and having protests. Some people thought we should have it moved and some people don’t think as much. Some days people were thinking of was January 1st, the day in 1901 that the Australian colonies united to form a single nation. Another is January 25th, the day before British settlement and the last day the Australian continent was inhabited only by indigenous people. People talked about combining Australia Day with ANZAC Day in April, or Wattle Day in September. Others think it could be the day Australia’s first federal parliament was opened, or the day of the referendum that recognised Aboriginal people in the constitution. Australia day hasn’t been changed but we should still recognise aboriginals.

 I understand how and why people chose some of the days it might change to in the future.

How come parliament didn’t send out some sort of vote about people’s thought?


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BTN Democracy


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Green facts

Red understandings

 Blue questions

In ancient Greek times to give the people more of a say on big decisions ( rulers, wars ect;) they came up with democracy. Democracy is basically two words put together, Demos meaning people and Kratos meaning power or rule. So altogether it means the rule of the people. They people vote on issues and they can say what effects them. But they didn’t mean everyone, in these times women weren’t seen as equal so they couldn’t vote. After excluding women there was still thousands of men left who were able to attend meetings and vote on any issues that were important to them. The ancient Greeks were the first people to experiment with better of leading their people. While their systems was far from where we are today and far from fair, it was revolutionary in that time. As time kept going there were new rulers with who changed things and democracy died out for quite some time. By the Middle Ages, monarchies had become a thing. That’s when kings and queens started to rule and the people didn’t get a say. But an important document called Magna Carta evened things up a little by promising people rights that rulers had to follow and slowly, over the next few hundred years, the idea of democracy started to take hold again. Democracy today is the most popular form of government worldwide. In Australia we have something called a Representative democracy. It means that unlike Greece where they went and voted on everything, we vote in a representative do that all. We have politicians who represent us in parliament, they here voters voices on a national level to hear your say. Important values form some of our basis of the democracy in Australia. We are automatically guaranteed freedom to express our views without getting in trouble. There are equal rights for people from all different religions and the right to justice and a fair independent trial. That’s Australia’s Democracy, but there are many other forms of government. Some countries, like Saudi Arabia and Qatar, are an all monarchy. That’s when someone’s born into a royal family and has complete control over the people and all laws and decisions that are made by that person. A dictatorship is another form of government. It’s similar to an monarchy in that one leader has power over a country, but they usually aren’t royal. Instead, dictators often take control of a country by force. North Korea and Zimbabwe are considered dictatorships. In these countries, people usually don’t have a lot of rights and often aren’t looked after very well by their rulers. They aren’t allowed to leave the country and it’s highly isolated. Australia’s system of democracy, it’s designed to have the people’s best interests at heart and while it may not always work perfectly, we’re lucky to live in a country where we have the right to voice our opinions and the freedom to make a difference.


I now understand different types of governments and how each one is different to each other and how it affects the communities differently.

I also understand what each one means and the pros and cons of them.


How does a dictator get chosen?

Why doesn’t each country have the same type of leadership

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